Наказание за убийство в Древней Руси (Вира)

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Вира — древнерусская мера наказания за убийство, выражавшаяся во взыскании с виновника денежного возмещения. Также вирой именовалось денежное возмещение за другие преступления. Один из институтов русского права.

Величина виры зависела от знатности и общественной значимости убитого. Упоминается в Русской Правде. В Киевской Руси уплачивалась князю. Постепенно вытесняла обычай кровной мести. Наиболее распространенный размер виры — 40 гривен. Это был очень большой штраф. За эту сумму можно было купить 20 коров или 200 баранов. Рядовой общинник, который присуждался к уплате виры, попадал в тяжелое положение. Выходом для таких людей был институт дикой виры.

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Дикая или повальная вира — особый вид наказания Древней Руси. Наказание применялось при простом (не разбойном) убийстве и состояло в уплате всей общиной штрафа (виры) за своего члена, которого община не выдавала. Наказание выполняло также полицейские функции, связывая членов общины круговой порукой.

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